Reasons for Male Infertility

Reasons for Male Infertility

Male fertility is quite complex. If you are looking to conceive, your sperm must be healthy and must be successfully transferred into the semen. Alongside, your sperm count must be good enough and all the sperm must be motile. The shape of the sperm must also be correct.  Claim Your 20 Free Pregnancy Tests – Click Here

Abnormal sperm may not be potent in many ways. They may not be motile or they may not have the ability to penetrate into the egg to cause fertilization. Infertility problems can arise in men too. Not many people comprehend the severity of male infertility but remember that both partners have to be fertile for conception and if the male is infertile conception can’t occur.

Male infertility can be caused due to a number of issues and these can be lifestyle related, health related, medicine related, and environment related. Some of the biggest causes of male infertility have been expounded as follows.

Lifestyle causes:

Drug use

A few medicines such as anabolic steroids are used for growth and muscular strength. These can shrink the testicles and reduce sperm production. Marijuana and cocaine can also have adverse effects on sperm count and quality.


While a glass or two won’t do any harm, alcohol abuse can be the cause of male infertility. It can reduce the levels of testosterone in your body and also reduce sperm count. Alcohol can also lead to erectile dysfunction.


It has been proven that smokers have low sperm count when compared to non-smokers. Even secondhand smoke is harmful.


Stress can cause a number of problems and male infertility is among them. This is because too much stress can hamper hormones that are responsible in sperm production.


Obesity can lead to hormonal changes that can in turn lead to infertility.

Medical Conditions:


A few infections can affect the health of the sperm or the production of sperm all together. Some of these infections may be sexually transmitted such as inflammation of testicles because of mumps, prostate inflammation, gonorrhea, and chlamydia.


Vein swelling is referred to as varicocele. This is one of the more common causes of infertility in men. Such swelling drains the testicles and leads to a lower sperm count.

Ejaculation problems

In some men, the semen does not expel from the penis during orgasm. Instead, it reaches the bladder. Such ejaculation issues can be caused by a few medicines, spinal injuries, diabetes, and surgery of the urethra, prostate, or the bladder. These men can actually produce sperm but the problem lies only in the ejaculation.


A few immune system cells malfunction and think of sperm as invaders in the body. They attempt to expel them by attacking them and this results in reduced sperm count.

Testicular problems

Some men have a condition known as undescended testicle(s). In this condition, during development, either one or even both of the testicles do not descend into the sac where they are supposed to be. Fertility is very low in such males.

Hormonal problems

Any abnormality that has adverse affects on hormonal systems can lead to male infertility. Low levels of testosterone and other hormones may be caused due to various reasons.

Sperm duct defects

Sperm ducts are the tubes responsible for carrying the sperm. These can be subjected to damage by injury or illness. If these are damaged, sperm won’t be carried and thus, fertility will be affected. Some men with inherent conditions don’t have sperm ducts at all and are infertile from the start.

Intercourse problems

Premature ejaculation, erectile dysfunction, painful intercourse, and other problems can also be the reasons behind male infertility.


There are a few medicines such as chemotherapy medicines for cancer, antifungal medicines, ulcer medicines, testosterone replacement therapy, and so on that can affect fertility to a large extent.

Along with all these, there are environmental issues too such as exposure to industrial chemicals, heavy metal exposure, exposure to x-rays and radiations, and so on. If you are suffering from male infertility, the reasons are many.

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Maureen Stephens, BS, RN
Maureen Stephens, BS, RN | ConceiveEasy
Ms. Stephens has spent over twenty years in the healthcare world, specializing in obstretical and medical/surgical nursing. She joined ConceiveEasy as she has a strong interest in educating and empowering women and promoting fertility awareness.